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8.1 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf Substanzgebrauch oder Substanzexposition

Altura BM, Altura BT, Gebrewold A. Alcohol induced spasm of cerebral blood vessels. J Mental Sci 2000; 104: 972-999.

Ashina M, Bendtsen L, Jensen R, Olesen J. Nitric oxide-induced headache in patients with chronic tension-type headache. Brain 2000; 123: 1830-1837.

Askmark H, Lundberg PO, Olsson S. Drug related headache. Headache 1989; 29: 441-444.

Beck HG, Schulze WH, Suter GM. Carbon monoxide-a domestic hazard. JAMA 1940; 115: 1.

Birk S, Kruuse C, Petersen KA, Tfelt-Hansen P, Olesen J. The headache-inducing effect of cilostazol in human volunteers. Cephalalgia 2006; 26: 1304-1309.

Bonnet GF, Nepveux P. Migraine due to tyramine. Sem Hop 1971; 47: 2441-2445.

Brewerton TD, Murphy DL, Lesem MD, Brandt HA, Jimerson DC. Headache responses following m-chlorophenylpiperazine in bulimics and controls. Headache 1992; 32: 217-222.

Cleophas TJ, Niemeyer MG, van der Wall EE, van der Meulen J. Nitrate-induced headache in patients with stable angina pectoris: beneficial effect of starting on a low dose. Angiology 1996; 47: 679-685.

Cregler LL, Mark H. Medical complications of cocaine abuse. NEJM 1986; 315: 1495-1501.

Dhopesh V, Maany I, Herring C. The relationship of cocaine to headache in polysubstance abusers. Headache 1991; 31: 17-19.

Dhuna A, Pascual-Leone A, Belgrade M. Cocaine-related vascular headaches. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1991; 54: 803-806.

De Marinis M, Janiri L, Agnoli A. Headache in the use and withdrawal of opiates and other associated substances of abuse. Headache 1991; 31: 159-163.

Ekbom K. Nitroglycerin as a provocative agent in cluster headache. Arch Neurol 1968; 19: 487-493.

el-Mallakh RS. Marijuana and migraine. Headache 1987; 27: 442-443.

el-Mallakh RS, Kranzler HR, Kamanitz JR. Headaches and psychoactive substance use. Headache 1991; 31: 584-587.

Fanciullacci M, Alessandri M, Figini M, Geppetti P, Michelacci S. Increase in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide from the extracerebral circulation during nitroglycerin-induced cluster headache attack. Pain 1995; 60: 119-123.

Forbes HS, Cobb S, Fremont-Smith F. Cerebral edema and headache following carbon monoxide asphyxia. Arch Neurol Psychiatr 1924; 11: 164.

Ghose K, Carrol JD. Mechanisms of tyramine-induced migraine: similarities with dopamine and interactions with disulfiram and propranolol. Neuropsychiobiol 1984; 12: 122-126.

Iversen HK, Nielsen TM, Olesen J, Tfelt-Hansen P. Intravenous nitroglycerin as an experimental model of vascular headache. Basic characteristics. Pain 1989; 38: 17-24.

Krabbe AA, Olesen J. Headache provocation by continuous intravenous infusion of histamine, clinical results and receptor mechanisms. Pain 1980; 8:253-259.

Kruuse C, Jacobsen TB, Lassen LH, Thomsen LL, Hasselbalch SG, Dige-Petersen H, Olesen J. Dipyridamole dilates large cerebral arteries concomitant to headache induction in healthy subjects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2000; 20: 1372-1379.

Kruuse C, Thomsen LL, Birk S, Olesen J. Migraine can be induced by sildenafil without changes in middle cerebral artery diameter. Brain 2003; 126: 241-247.

Kruuse C, Thomsen LL, Jacobsen TB, Olesen J. The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil has no effect on cerebral blood flow or blood velocity, but nevertheless induces headache in healthy subjects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2002; 22: 1124-1131.

Lassen LH, Thomsen LL, Olesen J. Histamine induces migraine via the H receptor. Support for the NO-hypothesis of migraine. Neuroreport 1995; 6: 1475-1479.

Leon AS, Hunninghake DB, Bell C, Rassin DK, Tephly TR. Safety of long-term doses of aspartame. Arch Int Med 1989; 149: 2318-2324.

Leone M, Attanasio A, Croci D, Filippini G, D’Amico D, Grazzi L, Nespolo A, Bussone G. The serotonergic agent m-chlorophenylpiperazine induced migraine attacks: a controlled study. Neurology 2000; 55: 136-139.

Lichten E, Lichten J, Whitty A, Pieper D. The confirmation of a biochemical marker for women’s hormonal migraine : the depo-oestradiol challenge test. Headache 1996; 36: 367-371.

Lipton RB, Kwong CM, Solomon S. Headaches in hospitalized cocaine users. Headache 1989; 29: 225-228.

Magos AL, Brewster E, Singh R, O’Dowd T, Brincat M, Studd JWW. The effects of norethisterone in postmenopausal women on oestrogen replacement therapy: a model for the premenstrual syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1986; 93: 1290-1296.

Murphree AB, Greenberg LA, Carrol RB. Neuropharmacologic effects of substances other than ethanol in alcoholic beverages. Fed Proc 1967; 26: 1468-1473.

Nappi RE, Cagnacci A, Granella F, Piccinini F, Polatti F, Facchinetti F. Course of primary headaches during hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2001; 38: 157-163.

Pepe G, Castelli M, Nazerian P et al. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: predictive risk factors in the Emergency Department. A retrospective study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2011; 19: 16.

Schiffmann SS, Buckley CE, Sampson HA et al. Aspartame and susceptibility to headache. NEJM 1987; 317: 1181-1185.

Sicuteri F, Bene ED, Poggioni M, Bonazzi A. Unmasking latent dysnociception in healthy subjects. Headache 1987; 27: 180-185.

Thomsen LL, Kruse C, Iversen HK, Olesen J. A Nitric oxide donor triggers genuine migraine attacks. Eur J Neurol 1994; 1: 71-80.

8.2 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf einen Medikamentenübergebrauch

Aaseth K, Grande RB, Šaltytė Bent J, Lundqvist C, Russell MB. 3-years-follow-up of secondary chronic headaches. The Akershus study of chronic headache. Eur J Pain 2011; 15: 186-92.

Ala-Hurula V, Myllyla V, Hokkanen E, Tokola O. Tolfenamic acid and ergotamine abuse. Headache 1981; 21: 240-242.

Andersson PG. Ergotamine headache. Headache 1975; 15: 118-121.

Bigal ME, Rapoport AM, Sheftell FD, Tepper SJ, Lipton RB. Transformed migraine and Medication overuse in a tertiary headache centre — clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. Cephalalgia 2004; 24: 483-490.

Diener HC, Dichgans J, Scholz E, Geiselhart S, Gerber WD, Bille A. Analgesic-induced chronic headache: long-term results of withdrawal therapy. J Neurol 1989; 236: 9-14.

Evers S, Gralow I, Bauer B, Suhr B, Buchheister A, Husstedt IW, Ringelstein EB. Sumatriptan and ergotamine overuse and drug-induced headache: a clinicoepidemiologic study. Clin Neuropharmacol 1999; 22: 201-206.

Find NL, Terlizzi R, Munksgaard SB et al. COMOESTAS Consortium. Medication overuse headache in Europe and Latin America: general demographic and clinical characteristics, referral pathways and national distribution of painkillers in a descriptive, multinational, multicentre study. J Headache Pain 2016; 17: 20.

Fritsche G, Frettlöh J, Hüppe M et al. Prevention of medication overuse in patients with migraine. Pain 2010; 151: 404-413.

Gaist D, Hallas J, Sindrup SH, Gram LF. Is overuse of sumatriptan a problem? A population-based study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 50: 161-165.

Gaist D, Tsiropoulus I, Sindrup SH, Hallas J, Rasmussen BK, Kragstrup J. Inappropriate use of sumatriptan: population based register and interview study. BMJ 1998; 316: 1352-1353.

Gossop M, Darke S, Griffiths P, Hando J, Powis B, Hall W, Strang J. The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS): psychometric properties of the SDS in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users. Addiction 1995; 90: 607-614.

Grande RB, Aaseth K, Saltyte Benth J, Gulbrandsen P, Russell MB, Lundqvist C. The Severity of Dependence Scale detects people with medication overuse: the Akershus study of chronic headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2009; 80: 784-789.

Grande RB, Aaseth K, Šaltytė Bent J, Lundqvist C, Russell MB. Reduction of medication-overuse headache after modified brief intervention. The Akershus study on chronic headache. Eur J Neurol 2011; 18: 129-37.

Hering R, Steiner TJ. Abrupt outpatient withdrawal from medication in analgesic-abusing migraineurs. Lancet 1991; 337: 1442-1443.

Katsarava Z, Fritsche G, Muessig M, Diener HC, Limmroth V. Clinical features of withdrawal headache following overuse of triptans and other headache drugs. Neurology 2001; 57: 1694-1698.

Kaube H, May A, Diener HC, Pfaffenrath V. Sumatriptan misuse in daily chronic headache. BMJ 1994; 308: 1573.

Kristoffersen ES, Straand J, Vetvik KG, Benth JŠ, Russell MB, Lundqvist C. Brief intervention for medication-overuse headache in primary care. The BIMOH study: a double-blind pragmatic cluster randomised parallel controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2015; 86: 505-512.

Kristoffersen ES, Straand J, Vetvik KG, Benth JŠ, Russell MB, Lundqvist C. Brief intervention by general practitioners for medication-overuse headache, follow-up after 6 months: a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial. J Neurol 2016; 263: 344-353.

Limmroth V, Katsarava Z, Fritsche G, Diener HC. Headache after frequent use of new 5-HT agonists zolmitriptan and naratriptan. Lancet 1999; 353: 378.

Limmroth V, Katsarava Z, Fritsche G, Przywara S, Diener HC. Features of medication overuse headache following overuse of different acute headache drugs. Neurology 2002; 59: 1011-1014.

Lundqvist C, Grande RB, Aaseth K, Russell MB. The severity of dependence scale predicts prognosis of medication overuse headache. The Akershus study of chronic headache. Pain 2012; 153: 682-686.

Nicolodi M, DelBianco PL, Sicuteri F. The way to serotonergic use and abuse in migraine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1997; 17: 79-84.

Rapoport A, Stang P, Gutterman DL, Cady R, Markley H, Weeks R, Saiers J, Fox AW. Analgesic rebound headache in clinical practice: data from a physician survey. Headache 1996; 36: 14-19.

Schnider P, Aull S, Baumgartner C et al. Long-term outcome of patients with headache and drug abuse after inpatient withdrawal: five-year followup. Cephalalgia 1996; 16: 481-485.

Schnider P, Aull S, Feucht M. Use and abuse of analgesics in tension-type headache. Cephalalgia 1994; 14: 162-167.

Seller EM, Busto UE, Kaplan HL, Somer G, Baylon GJ. Comparative abuse liability of codeine and naratriptan. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63: 121.

Tfelt-Hansen P, Krabbe AA. Ergotamine. Do patients benefit from withdrawal? Cephalalgia 1981; 1: 29-32.

8.3 Kopfschmerz zurückzuführen auf den Entzug einer Substanz

Abbott PJ. Caffeine: a toxicological overview. Med J Aust 1986; 145: 518-521.

Epstein MT, Hockaday JM, Hockaday TDR. Migraine and reproductive hormones through the menstrual cycle. Lancet 1975; i: 543-548.

Laska EM, Sunshine A, Mueller F, Elvers WB, Siegel C, Rubin A. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant. JAMA 1984; 251: 1711-1718.

Lichten E, Lichten J, Whitty A, Pieper D. The confirmation of a biochemical marker for women’s hormonal migraine : the depo-oestradiol challenge test. Headache 1996; 36: 367-371.

Silverman K, Evans SM, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. NEJM 1992; 327: 1109-1114.

Somerville BW. Estrogen-withdrawal migraine. I. Duration of exposure required and attempted prophylaxis by premenstrual estrogen administration. Neurology 1975; 25: 239-244.

Somerville BW. Estrogen-withdrawal migraine. II. Attempted prophylaxis by continuous estradiol administration. Neurology 1975; 25: 245-250.

Somerville BW. The role of estradiol withdrawal in the etiology of menstrual migraine. Neurology 1972; 22: 355-365.

Somerville BW. The role of progesterone in menstrual migraine. Neurology 1971; 21: 853-859.

van Dusseldorp M, Katan MB. Headache caused by caffeine withdrawal among moderate coffee drinkers switched from ordinary to decaffeinated coffee: a 12 week double blind trial. BMJ 1990; 300: 1558-1559.