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9.1 Headache attributed to intracranial infection

Solomon T, Michael BD, Smoth PE et al. Management of suspected viral encephalitis in adults. Association of British Neurologists and British Infection Association National Guidelines. J Infection 2012; 64: 347-373.

9.1.1 Headache attributed to bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis

Bohr V, Hansen B, Kjersen H, Rasmussen N, Johnsen N, Kristensen HS, Jessen O. Sequelae from bacterial meningitis and their relation to the clinical condition during acute illness, based on 667 questionnaire returns. Part II of a three part series. J Infection 1983; 7(2): 102-110.

Brooks RG, Licitra CM, Peacock MG. Encephalitis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ann Neurol 1986; 20: 91-93.

Drexler ED. Severe headaches. When to worry, what to do. Postgrad Med J 1990; 87: 164-170, 173-180.

Francke E. The many causes of meningitis. Postgrad Med 1987; 82: 175-178, 181-183, 187-188.

Gedde-Dahl TW, Lettenstrom GS, Bovre K. Coverage for meningococcal disease in the Norwegian morbidity and mortality statistics. NIPH Ann 1980; 3: 31-35.

Helbok R, Broessner G, Pfausler B, Schmutzhard E. Chronic meningitis. J Neurol 2009; 256: 168-175.

Jones HR, Siekert RG. Neurological manifestation of infective endocarditis. Brain 1989; 112: 1295-1315.

Pachner AR, Steere AC. Neurological findings of Lyme disease. Yale Biol Med 1984; 57: 481-483.

Pachner AR, Steere AC. The triad of neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease: meningitis, cranial neuritis, and radiculoneuritis. Neurology 1985; 35: 47-53.

Tonjum T. Nilsson F, Bruun JH, Hanebeg B. The early phase of meningococcal disease. NIPH Ann 1983; 6: 175-181.

van de Beek D, de Gans J, Spanjaard L, Weisfelt M, Reitsma JB, Vermeulen M. Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis. NEJM 2004; 351(18): 1849-1859.

Zhang SR, Zhang YS, Zhao XD. Tuberculous meningitis with hydrocephalus: a clinical and CT study. Chung Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih 1989; 28: 202-204.

9.1.2 Headache attributed to viral meningitis or encephalitis

Ambrose HE, Granerod J, Clewley JP, Davies NW, Keir G, Cunningham R, Zuckerman M, Mutton KJ, Ward KN, Ijaz S, Crowcroft NS, Brown DW. UK Aetiology of Encephalitis Study Group. Diagnostic strategy used to establish etiologies of encephalitis in a prospective cohort of patients in England. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 3576-3583.

Davis LE, McLaren LC. Relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis following antiviral therapy. Ann Neurol 1983; 13: 192-195.

Denes E, Labach C, Durox H, Adoukonou T, Weinbreck P, Magy L, Ranger-Rogez S. Intrathecal synthesis of specific antibodies as a marker of herpes simplex encephalitis in patients with negative PCR. Swiss Med Wkly 2010; 140: w13107.

Desmond RA, Accortt NA, Talley L, Villano SA, Soong S-J, Whitley RJ. Enteroviral meningitis: natural history and outcome of pleconaril therapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2006; 50: 2409–2414.

Domachowske JB, Cunningham CK, Cummings DL, Crosley CJ, Hannan WP, Weiner LB. Acute manifestations and neurologic sequelae of Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15: 871-875.

Domingues RB, Kuster GW, Onuki de Castro FL, Souza VA, Levi JE, Pannuti CS. Headache features in patients with dengue virus infection. Cephalalgia 2006; 26: 879-882.

Farazmand P, Woolley PD, Kinghorn GR. Mollaret’s meningitis and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections. Int J STD AIDS. 2011; 22: 306-307.

Kennedy PG. Retrospective analsys of 46 cases of simplex encephalitis seen in Glasgow between 1962 and 1985. OJM 1988; 86: 533-540.

Kennedy PG, Adams IH, Graham DI, Clements GB. A clinico-pathological study of herpes simplex encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1998; 14: 395-415.

Mutton K, Guiver M. Laboratory techniques for human viral encephalitis diagnosis. Infect Disord Drug Targets 2011; 11(3): 206-234.

Poneprasert B. Japanese encephalitis in children in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public health 1989; 20:599-603.

Poulikakos PJ, Sergi EE, Margaritis AS, Kioumourtzis AG, Kanellopoulos GD, Mallios PK, Dimitrakis DJ, Poulikakos DJ, Aspiotis AA, Deliousis AD, Flevaris CP, Zacharof AK. A case of recurrent benign lymphocytic (Mollaret’s) meningitis and review of the literature. J Infect Public Health 2010; 3: 192-195.

Saged JI, Weinstein Mo, Miller DC. Chronic encephalitis possibly due to herpes simplex virus: two cases. Neurology 1985; 35: 1470-1472.

Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system infections caused by herpesviruses. J Clin Virol 2002; 25 Suppl 1: S45–S51.

Singer JI, Maur PR, Riley JP, Smith PB. Management of central nervous system infections during an epidemic of enteroviral aseptic meningitis. J Pediatr 1980; 96: 559-563.

Takeuchi S, Takasato Y, Masaoka H, Hayakawa T, Otani N, Yoshino Y, Yatsushige H, Sugawara T. Hemorrhagic encephalitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Clin Neurosci 2010; 17: 153-154.

9.1.3 Headache attributed to intracranial fungal or other parasitic infection

Cochius JI, Burns RJ, Willoughby JO. CNS cryptococcosis: unusual aspects. Clin Exp Neurol 1989; 26: 183-191.

Contini C. Clinical and diagnostic management of toxoplasmosis in the immunocompromised patient. Parassitologia 2008; 50: 45-50.

Drake KW, Adam RD. Coccidioidal meningitis and brain abscesses: analysis of 71 cases at a referral center. Neurology 2009; 73: 1780-1786.

Onishi A, Sugiyama D, Kogata Y, Saegusa J, Sugimoto T, Kawano S, Morinobu A, Nishimura K, Kumagai S. Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-β-D-glucan for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 7-15.

Patil SA, Katyayani S, Arvind N. Significance of antibody detection in the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. J Immunoassay Immunochem 2012; 33: 140-148.

Prandota J. Recurrent headache as the main symptom of acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects with no lymphadenopathy: the parasite may be responsible for the neurogenic inflammation postulated as a cause of different types of headaches. Am J Ther 2007; 14: 63-105.

Singh RR, Chaudhary SK, Bhatta NK, Khanal B, Shah D. Clinical and etiological profile of acute febrile encephalopathy in eastern Nepal. Indian J Pediatr 2009; 76: 1109-1111.

9.1.4 Headache attributed to localized brain infection

Chalstrey S, Pfleiderer AG, Moffat DA. Persisting incidence and mortality of sinogenic cerebral abscess: a continuing reflection of late clinical diagnosis. J R Soc Med 1991; 84: 193-195.

Chun CH, Johnson JD, Hofstetter M, Raff MJ. Brain abscess: a study of 45 consecutive cases. Medicine 1986; 65: 415-431.

French H, Schaefer N, Keijzers G, Barison D, Olson S. Intracranial subdural empyema: a 10-year case series. Ochsner J 2014; 14: 188-194.

Harris LF, Maccubbin DA, Triplett JN, Haws FB. Brain abscess: recent experience at a community hospital. South Med J 1985; 78: 704-707.

Hodges J, Anslow P, Gillet G. Subdural empyema: continuing diagnostic problems in the CT scan era. QJM 1986; 59: 387-393.

Kulay A, Ozatik N, Topucu I. Otogenic intracranial abscesses. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1990; 107: 140-146.

Leotta N, Chaseling R, Duncan G, Isaacs D. Intracranial suppuration. J. Paediatr Child Health 2005; 41: 508-512.

McIntyre PB, Lavercombe PS, Kemp RJ, McCormack JG. Subdural and epidural empyema: diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Med J Aust 1991; 154: 653-657.

Sellik JA. Epidural abscess and subdural empyema. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1989; 89: 806-810.

Seven H, Coskun BU, Calis AB, Sayin I, Turgut S. Intracranial abscesses associated with chronic suppurative otitis media. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2005; 262: 847-851.

Yen PT, Chan ST, Huang TS. Brain abscess: with special reference to otolaryngologic sources of infection. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995; 113: 15-22.

Yıldırmak T, Gedik H, Simşek F, Kantürk A. Community-acquired intracranial suppurative infections: A 15-year report. Surg Neurol Int 2014; 5: 142.

9.2 Headache attributed to systemic infection

Arredondo M, Hackett J, de Bethencourt FR, Trevi A, Escudero D, Collado A, Qiu X, Swanson P, Soriano V, de Mendoza C. Prevalence of XMRV infection in different risk populations in Spain. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012; 28: 1089-1094.

Capelli E, Zola R, Lorusso L, Venturini L, Sardi F, Ricevuti G. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: an update. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2010; 23(4): 981-989.

De Marinis M, Welch KM, Headache associated with non-cephalic infections: classification and mechanisms. Cephalalgia 1992; 12: 197-201.

Hou CC, Lin H, Chang CP, Huang WT, Lin MT. Oxidative stress and pyrogenic fever pathogenesis. Eur J Pharmacol 2011; 667(1-3): 6-12.

Leligdowicz A, Fischer WA 2nd, Uyeki TM et al. Ebola virus disease and critical illness. Critical Care 2016; 20: 217.

Saiz JC, Vázquez-Calvo Á, Blázquez AB, Merino-Ramos T, Escribano-Romero E, Martín-Acebes MA. Zika Virus: the latest newcomer. Front Microbiol 2016; 7: 496.