6.1.1 Headache attributed to ischaemic stroke (cerebral infarction)

Ferro JM, Melo TP, Oliveira V, Salgado AV, Crespo M, Canh. A multivariate study of headache associated with ischemic stroke. Headache 1995; 35: 315-319.

Gorelick PB, Hier DB, Caplan LR, Langenberg D. Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. Neurology 1986; 36: 1445-1450.

Hansen AP, Marcussen NS, Klit H, Kasch H, Jensen TS, Finnerup NB. Development of persistent headache following stroke: a 3-year follow-up. Cephalalgia 2015; 35: 399-409.

Lopes Azevedo L, Breder R, de A Santos DP, de Freitas GR. Ischemic stroke presenting as thunderclap headache: report of two cases and review of the literature. Eur Neurol 2011; 66: 133-135.

Portenoy RK, Abissi CJ, Lipton RB, Berger AR, Mebler MF, Baglivo J, Solomon S. Headache in cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1984; 15: 1009-1012.

Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW. Thunderclap stroke: embolic cerebellar infarcts presenting as thunderclap headache. Headache 2006; 46; 520-522.

Verdelho A, Ferro JM, Melo T, Canhao P, Falcao F. Headache in acute stroke. A prospective study in the first 8 days. Cephalalgia 2008; 28; 346-354.

6.1.2 Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA)

Caplan LR. Migraine and vertebrobasilar ischemia. Neurology 1991; 41: 55-61.

Ferro JM, Costa I, Melo TP, Canhao P, Oliveira V, Salgado AV, Crespo M, Pinto AN. Headache associated with transient ischemic attacks. Headache 1995; 35: 544-548.

Fisher CM. Migraine accompaniments versus arteriosclerotic ischemia. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1968; 93: 211-213.

Fisher CM. Cerebral ischemia: less familiar types. Clin Neurosurg 1971; 18: 267-336.

Fisher CM. Late-life migraine accompaniements as a cause of unexplained transient ischemic attacks. Can J Med Sci 1980; 7: 9-17.

Martsen BH, Sorensen PS, Marquardsen J. Transient ischemic attacks in young patients: a thromboembolic or migrainous manifestation? A ten-year follow-up of 46 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1990; 53: 1029-1033.

6.2.1 Acute headache attributed to non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage

Abadie V, Jacquin A, Daubail B, Vialatte AL, Lainay C, Durier J, Osseby GV, Giroud M, Béjot Y. Prevalence and prognostic value of headache on early mortality in acute stroke: the Dijon Stroke Registry. Cephalalgia 2014; 34: 887-894.

Ferro JM, Melo TP, Guerreiro M. Headaches in intracerebral hemorrhage survivors. Neurology 1998; 50: 203-207.

Jensen TS, Gorrelick PB. Headache associated with stroke and intracranial hematoma. In: The Headaches. 2nd edition.J. Olesen, P. Telt-Hansen, KMA Welch eds. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2000, 781-787.

Melo TP, Pinto AN, Ferro JM. Headache in intracerebral hematomas. Neurology 1996; 47: 494-500.

Schuaib A, Metz L, and Hing T. Migraine and intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Cephalalgia 1989; 9: 59-61.

Verdelho A, Ferro JM, Melo T, Canhao P, Falcao F. Headache in acute stroke. A prospective study in the first 8 days. Cephalalgia 2008; 28; 346-354.

6.2.2 Acute headache attributed to non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)

Bassi P, Bandera R, Loiero M, Togoni G, Mangoni A. Warning signs in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cooperative tudy. Acta Neurol Scand 1991; 84: 277-281.

Edlow JA, Caplan LR. Avoiding pitfalls in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. NEJM 2000; 342: 29-36.

Evans RW. Diagnostic testing for the evaluation of headaches. Neurology Clinics 1996; 14: 1-26.

Graff-Radford J, Fugate JE, Klaas J, Flemming KD, Brown RD, Rabinstein AA. Distinguishing clinical and radiological features of non-traumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eur J Neurol 2016; 23: 839-846.

Linn FHH, Rinkel GJE, Algra A, van Gijn J. Headache characteristics in subarachnoid haemorrhage and benign thunderclap headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1998; 65: 791-793.

Mayberg MR, Batjer HH, Dacey R, Diringer M, Haley EC, Heros RC, Sternau LL, Torner J, Adams HP, Feinberg W, Thies W. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Stroke 1994; 25: 2315-2328.

Ramirez-Lassepas M, Espinosa CE, Cicero JJ, Johnston KL, Cipolle RJ, Barber DL. Predictors of intracranial pathologic findings in patients who seek emergency care because of headache. Arch Neurol 1997; 54: 1506-1509.

Rico M, Benavente L, Para M, Santamarta E, Pascual J, Calleja S. Headache as a crucial symptom in the etiology of convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Headache 2014; 54: 545-550.

Seymour JJ, Moscati RM, Jehle DV. Response of headaches to non-narcotic analgesics resulting in missed intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13: 43-45.

Sidman R, Vconnolly E, Lemke T. Subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosis : lumbar puncture is still needed when the computed tomography scan is normal. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3: 827-831.

Van der Wee N, Rinkel GJE, Hasan D, van Gijn J. Detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage on early CT: is lumbar puncture still needed after a negative scan? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1995; 58: 357-359.

Verweij RD, Wijdicks EFM, van Gijn J. Warning headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A case control study. Arch Neurol 1988; 45: 1019-1020.

Weir B. Diagnostic aspects of SAH. In: Weir B. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: causes and cures. New York: Oxford University Press 1998, 144-176.

6.2.3 Acute headache attributed to non-traumatic acute subdural haemorrhage (ASDH)

Chhiber SS, Singh JP. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma of arterial origin: a report of four cases and review of literature. Neurol India 2010; 58: 654-658.

Depreitere B, Van Calenbergh F, van Loon J. A clinical comparison of non-traumatic acute subdural haematomas either related to coagulopathy or of arterial origin without coagulopathy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2003; 145: 541-546

Koerbel A, Ernemann U, Freudenstein D. Acute subdural hematoma without subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm: case report and review of literature. Br J Radiol 2005; 78: 646-650.

Missori P, Fenga L, Maraglino C, Rocchi G, Nardacci B, Calderaro G, Salvati M, Delfini R. Spontaneous acute subdural hematomas. A clinical comparison with traumatic acute subdural hematomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2000; 142: 697-701.

de Noronha RJ, Sharrack B, Hadjivassiliou M, Romanowski CA. Subdural haematoma: a potentially serious consequence of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74: 752-755.

Ogawa K, Oishi M, Mizutani T, Maejima S, Mori T. Dural arteriovenous fistula on the convexity presenting with pure acute subdural hematoma. Acta Neurol Belg 2010; 110: 190-192.

Takahashi S, Shinoda J, Hayashi T. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in an Adult Patient Presenting as Headache and Acute Subdural Hematoma. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2010; 21: 338-340.

6.2.4 Persistent headache attributed to past non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage

Hansen AP, Marcussen NS, Klit H, Kasch H, Jensen TS, Finnerup NB. Development of persistent headache following stroke: a 3-year follow-up. Cephalalgia 2015; 35:399-409.

6.3.1 Headache attributed to unruptured saccular aneurysm

Byruma EP, McGregor JM, Christoforidisa GA. Thunderclap headache without subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with regrowth of previously coil-occluded aneurysms. Am J Neuroradiol 2009; 30: 1059-1061.

Day JW, Raskin NH. Thunderclap headache: symptom of unruptured cerebral aneurysm. Lancet 1986; 2: 1247-1248.

Linn FHH, Wijdicks EFM, van der Graaf Y, Weerdesteyn-van Vliet FAC, Bartelds A, van Gijn J. Prospective study of sentinel headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet 1994; 344: 590-593.

Markus HS. A prospective follow-up of thunderclap headache mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage. J. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1991; 54: 1117-1125.

Mas JL, Baron JC, Bousser MG, Chiras J. Stroke, migraine and intracranial aneurysm: a case report. Stroke 1986; 17: 1019-1021.

Ostergard JR, Ramadan N. Unruptured vascular malformations and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In J Olesen, P Tfelt-Hansen, KMA Welch eds. The Headaches 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Lipincott Williams and Wilkins 2000: 789-796.

Raps EC, Rogers